ECPE Writing - part 2

Linking Words and Phrases for Use in All Essay Types

Listing Points:
    First of all, to begin / start with, secondly, thirdly, finally
    For starters, next, after, then, to conclude

Introducing Examples:
   For example, for instance, like, such as, in particular, this is clearly illustrated
   by, a typical or striking example of this is

To Explain sth to Your Reader:
   This / which means that, in other words, meaning that, that is to say…

Showing Addition:
   In addition (to), moreover, furthermore, apart from, besides, as well as, also
   both… and

Expressing Cause:
   Because (of), due to, owing to, since, as, given (that)

Showing Result:
   Thus, therefore, as a result / consequence, for this reason, consequently

Expressing Reality:
   In fact, it is a fact that, actually, in practice

Emphasizing a Particular Point:
  Clearly, obviously, it is obvious, needless to say, without doubt

Showing contrast:
   Although, (even) though, while, whereas, despite, in spite of the fact that, on
   the other hand, however, nevertheless, yet, still + it may be argued / claimed
   that, others (many people) feel / claim / believe that…

Giving Opinions:

  1.  In my opinion / view…
  2.  My opinion is that…
  3.  I feel / think / believe that…
  4.  I am inclined to believe that…
  5.  It seems / appears to me that…
  6.  I am (not) convinced that…
  7.  As far as I am concerned…
  8.  It holds that…
  9.  I hold / maintain that…

Useful Expressions for Agreeing Partially:

  1.  this is partly true
  2.  to (an) (certain) / (some) extent
  3.  in some cases
  4.  up to a point
  5.  While it can not be denied that
  6. While it is true that

Useful Expressions to Introduce Arguments or Viewpoints:

  1. One argument in favor of / against…is
  2. It is widely believed / claimed that…
  3. It can / could be argued that…
  4. It is generally believed / maintained that
  5. Some people believe / feel / maintain that…
  6. Many people claim / maintain that…
  7. Experts / Scientists support the view that…
  8. Experts are / Scientists are / in favor of / against / opposed to

Useful Expressions for Concluding an Opinion Essay:

  1. In conclusion,
  2. To conclude,
  3. All things considered,
  4. Taking everything into account 
  5. For the above-mentioned reasons, 
  6. To sum up,
  7. All in all, 
  8. I feel / believe that…
  9. I am inclined to believe that… 
  10. I am convinced that… 
  11. It is my opinion / belief that… 
  12. I (don’t) agree that… 

Useful Expressions for Presenting Advantages: 

  1. The main / greatest advantage of…is 
  2. One /A (major) advantage of…is 
  3. Another /A further advantage of…is 
  4. One very convincing argument in favor…is 
  5. Supporters of claim / maintain /advocate that… 

Useful Expressions for Presenting Disadvantages: 

  1. The main / greatest disadvantage of…is
  2. One / A (major) disadvantage of…is 
  3. Another / A further disadvantage of…is 
  4. One very convincing argument against…is 
  5. Another negative aspect of…is 
  6. Proponents of…draw attention to the fact that… 

Useful Expressions for Concluding a Balanced Essay: 
  1. In conclusion, 
  2. On balance, 
  3. All things considered, 
  4. Taking everything into account 
  5. To sum up, 
  6. To conclude, 
  7. All in all, 
  8. it seems appears that… 
  9. it may be concluded that… 
  10. there is little doubt that… 
  11. it is likely / unlikely that… 
  12. it is clear / obvious / evident that… 
  13. the obvious conclusion to be drawn is… 
  14. there is no absolute answer to

Useful Expressions to Suggest Solutions: 

One possible way / useful suggestion to solve 

  1. Another / An alternative way / suggestion to overcome (of)…is/ 
  2. combat deal with 
  3. Measures must be taken in order to / so as to solve / overcome / combat / deal with this (the) problem 
  4. By _____________, we / people / governments can ensure / can prevent… 
  5. The situation could / would improve if we / people / governments … 
  6. It would be a good idea to __________ that way _________. 

Presenting Expected Results: 

The result / outcome / effect / consequence of this / (-ing) would be… might be… 


Narrative Essay, sample:

Many think that it's important to experience failure in order to learn from it. To what extent do you think this is true? Describe an incident when you failed and what, if anything, you may have learned from the experience.
Life is full of challenges. These challenges give rise to our strong desire to achieve goals which, sometimes, are unlikely to happen. Most people get to experience such moments of disappointment during their lives, and I am no exception. Of the number of times I had to accept that things would eventually not work out, the one during which I faced the most severe disappointment was when I struggled to convince my parents to purchase a bike for me.
Over the years, the number of things I would like to have owned was limited, though at that time a bike seemed like a dream which just had to come true. Being too young to be trusted with an independent vehicle, I had to cope with denial and long frustrating discussions over the danger bike ownership involved, even if such arguments were sensible enough. Notwithstanding the fact that neither my father nor my mother would agree to expose their young child to the danger of transportation via such a form, I remember spending most of my time doing research on bikes of high quality, comparing prices, and befriending people who owned one. Eventually, there came a point when I wished to hear no more of their objections and merely went out bought the bike.
Although I never succeeded in persuading them to actually buy me one, the experience was far more valuable than I expected. During the bleak, hopeless hours that I spent while doing my best to get what I truly wanted and despite the fact that it turned out to be a “waste” of time, it really was not. To elaborate, while I tend to laugh whenever such memories are evoked, I strongly believe this incident was one of the most precious lessons I have ever come to acquire, simply for the reason that it made me realise that how hard you try to achieve a goal only makes you stronger with more will-power.
To recapitulate, lessons can be learnt from the hardest of times. Maybe that is what makes us go on in the end; the never-ending hope for something better.

Problem Solving Essay, sample: 
The internet has transformed the way information is shared and consumed, but it has also created problems that did not exist before.What are the most serious problems associated with the internet and what solutions can you suggest?

     The enormous growth in the use of the internet over the last decade has led to radical changes to the way that people consume and share information. Although serious problems have arisen as a result of this, there are solutions.

      One of the first problems of the internet is the ease with which children can access potentially dangerous sites. For example, pornography sites are easily accessible to them because they can register with a site and claim to be an adult. There is no doubt that this affects their thoughts and development, which is a negative impact for the children and for society. Another major problem is the growth of online fraud and hacking. These days, there are constant news stories about government and company websites that have been hacked, resulting in sensitive information falling into the hands of criminals.

      It is important that action is taken to combat these problems. Governments should ensure that adequate legislation and controls are in place that will prevent young people from accessing dangerous sites, such as requiring more than simply confirming that you are an adult to view a site. Parents also have a part to play. They need to closely monitor the activities of their children and restrict their access to certain sites, which can now be done through various computer programs. Companies must also improve their onsite IT security systems to make fraud and hacking much more difficult by undertaking thorough reviews of their current systems for weaknesses.

      To conclude, the internet is an amazing technological innovation that has transformed people’s lives, but not without negative impacts. However, with the right action by individuals, governments and businesses, it can be made a safe place for everyone.

For & Against Essay, sample:

Some people feel admission should be free to national museums, galleries, and major historical sites, while others disagree, arguing that admission fees are necessary. Discuss the arguments for and against establishing free admission to national treasures. Which do you feel is a better policy? Support your ideas with reasons and examples.
    Everyone agrees that museums and other cultural institutions help to preserve culture and educate people.The question is: Should admission to such institutions be free, or should a fee be charged to help fund them?The issue is far from black and white, so it’s worth looking at both sides.
       On the one hand are those who feel that cultural institutions should be free of charge. Their main argument is that these institutions belong to the people. As such, they should be funded by tax dollars and exist for the betterment of everyone in society. Free access means that everyone can visit these treasures as often as they like. In other words, no one is deprived by their inability to pay. It also means that families and educational institutions can encourage children to take full advantage of the enriched educational experience that museums offer.
    On the other hand are those who argue against free admission. This group maintains that while free admission sounds attractive, it is far from practical. They point out that with government funding alone, it is difficult for museums to make ends meet — particularly during economic downturns, when funding might be reduced. A museum needs to cover operating expenses, make new acquisitions, and mount new exhibitions, and fees can go a long way towards reducing the strain on tight budgets. They also argue that fees do not necessarily mean that less fortunate people would be deprived. With careful planning, for example, deeply discounted fees could be set for students, and inexpensive membership plans established for families and frequent visitors. 
    On balance, I feel that although both sides have merit, charging admission fees is the better option. Without them, we may lose much of the culture that we are trying to protect. With them, museums will be able to offer even better programs for school children and others who would most benefit.

Opinion Essay, sample:  

Topic: It has often been suggested that the re-introduction of capital punishment would deter the ever increasing rate of serious crime. What is your view? Do you think that capital punishment should be reinstated?
It’s an indisputable fact that the crime rate has increased dramatically. Not many people can stand this situation, so they suggest that capital punishment should be re-introduced. However, others have the opposite opinion. From my perspective, people should not be punished by being killed.
There are several reasons as to why the death penalty should not be legalised. The most significant one is that killing criminals makes things worse due to the fact that neither their crimes can be corrected, nor can they offer things to humanity in order to compensate for what they have done. To exemplify, a person that has been arrested and convicted for murder cannot make the dead person live again by being killed, so execution helps nobody apart from the relatives who might what the guilty person to die out of a sense of revenge. Another important reason is that sometimes people who feel guilty and depressed are willing to die so, in this case, the criminal seems to be alleviated by this action. To elaborate, capital punishment does not seem harmful for them, so far from being a punishment it is a source of relief.
Not withstanding these facts, there are those who support that by killing criminals, danger to society as a whole is being reduced. This idea is flawed, however, because of the fact that they fail to realise that criminals that have committed serious crimes inevitably get life-sentences and are never released back into society, thus ensuring the general public’s safety.
To recapitulate, it seems that there are strong arguments to support the re-introduction of the death penalty, despite the concerns of some. I certainly think that capital punishment is both inhumane and unnecessary and therefore should not be considered as a viable solution to increasing criminality.

“Unique” Essay, sample: 

Nowadays, many students opt to study at a foreign university. What are some of the factors that motivate this decision? 
    Studying abroad is sometimes a matter of necessity. In some countries, places in institutions of higher learning are limited and competition for these places is fierce. This means that many students may not secure a place at a university in their own country and must, therefore, look elsewhere.
 In my country, students who want to study subjects like law or engineering must meet very high admission requirements, and many capable students fail to make the grade. However, these students may get accepted at a foreign university to study the subject they want.
    Another important consideration that may lead a student to study abroad is the reputation a foreign university has. Many leading universities abroad are renowned for their high educational standards. because these universities are often well funded, they are able to offer students a range of benefits, such as a wider choice of subjects and more high-tech facilities. For students who can afford it, a period of study at a foreign university with international prestige may be an attractive option. 
    Finally, students who decide to study abroad have a unique opportunity to develop skills they will need in their chosen careers. While at a foreign university, students can improve their grasp of a second language, and they will get used to living and working in a different cultural environment. These skills are important in fields such as tourism or international business, in which people often have dealings with people from abroad. I therefore firmly believe that for students who want to work in these professions, there is good reason to enroll at a foreign university.
    In conclusion, going abroad to study may be considered a wise move for a number of reasons. Students can have more options when it comes to entering higher education, and more experiences that will help them professionally. This, in my view, can make their university experience even more worthwhile.
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